Allergy is one of the most common diseases that can affect both adults and children. Various medications are used to treat allergic diseases, and these influence the mechanism of allergy development and its symptoms.
Anti allergic drugs classification
To treat allergy and its symptoms in children and adults, the following can be used:
- antihistaminic agents,
- corticosteroid drugs,
The most common group of drugs for the treatment of allergic reactions are the antihistaminic agents. The use of these drugs helps to control the allergic disease and its symptoms, as well as to improve the patient’s life quality.
Classification of anti-allergic drugs by generations is widespread in clinical practice. Thus, 2 generations of antihistamines are distinguished. Medications of the first generation penetrate well through the blood-brain barrier and affect histamine receptors in the brain and spinal cord.
However, their use provides a sedative effect and is accompanied by a large number of side effects.
The most commonly used first generation antihistaminic agents are:
Antihistamines of the second generation have a high action selectivity, do not cause addiction and do not cause drowsiness in patients.
This group includes such drugs, as:
Based on the opinion of many specialists, corticosteroids are effective anti-allergic drugs. According to classification, these include hydrocortisone, prednisone and cortisone.
Corticosteroids are produced in the form of oral tablets, syrups and capsules, ointments and creams, and solutions for injections. The use of drugs from this group helps to suppress inflammation and reduce the allergy symptoms.
Decongestant medications are common drugs that are used for colds, flu and allergic reactions. One of anti-allergic drugs classifications is based on their administration method.
Some decongestants can be used topically, others can be taken orally. These anti-allergic medications reduce edema of the vessels and tissues of the nose and help open the airways.
In this group, the most popular are such medications, as:
Antileukotriene drugs can be used in the treatment of allergic diseases, as well. These drugs have obtained a widespread popularity in patients, who suffer from asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis.
The basis of classification for these anti allergic drugs lies in the action mechanism of the antileukotrienes.
Medications of this group act as follows:
- Reduce the formation of leukotrienes.
- Selectively block the leukotriene receptors.
To date, antileukotrienes drugs approved for the treatment of allergic diseases in adults and adolescents, are Zyflo, Singulair, and Accolate. The drugs have a favorable safety profile and are highly effective.